The Department of Immunology and Microbiology offers a diversified program leading to the Doctor of Philosophy degree. The department focuses on research in the fields of Immunology, Microbiology and Virology. Areas of specialization include mucosal immunity, autoimmunity, immunopathology, bacterial physiology, bacterial genetics, molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, molecular virology, viral pathogenesis, and cancer biology. The department's full-time faculty are augmented by joint and associate faculty from other medical school departments and adjunct faculty affiliated with the Karmanos Cancer Institute and the hospitals of the Detroit Medical Center and the Henry Ford Health System. At the present time, the Master of Science degree is available only under special circumstances.